Guitar Buying Advice For Beginners. Being able to tell which key you’re in while improvising is an important skill. Major 5. On this page, we’ll examine the diatonic triads and diatonic seventh chords of every major scale. '��r}8�Tw�6���-⣎�|�!���ha�'�n@���cScT1΃Frv��3����Ƿ� This Chord Wizard provides tools for playing various chords on the mountain dulcimer. Major 2. Minor 7. Learn how to build major, minor, diminished, diminished seventh, augmented, suspended fourth, seventh suspended fourth, dominant seventh, minor seventh, major seventh, minor sixth and major sixth piano chords. Basically, the difference between a chord and a triad is that a chord is a group of three or more notes, and a triad is specifically a root, 3rd, and 5th. The triad built from the fifth degree of the scale (i.e. Take the key of C major for example: C Major:C – D – E – F – G – A – B. Copyright © 2020 GuitarCommand.com. �u�W�R��y-�b�|9�bo�i�Z��(���N6�z�dc�� �X�=��Tz-�:4�z�����֛. Knowledge of diatonic chords is useful for songwriters, improvisors, and anyone else interested in how music works. Knowledge of diatonic chords is an essential part of traditional music theory and classical harmony. One thing I can’t wrap my thick scale around is how is their a Cb instead of it being a B? You could, at various points in the song, try playing an Am in place of a C chord, or a Dm in place of the F. Both of these minor chords are diatonic to the scale of C, and their inclusion may add another dimension to the music. That is, the chord constructed from the root note of the G major scale. Lesson With TAB & Scale Patterns, Greensleeves Guitar Tab: Play This Easy Fingerstyle Arrangement For Solo Guitar, What Type Of Electric Guitar To Buy? These 7 tones always sound the same in relationship to each other but there are 12 versions that change in pitch. It is possible to build a chord on each of the seven notes in every key. There are four kinds of triad: major, minor, diminished and augmented. Chords can be diatonic to one key and chromatic to the other. Diatonic Chords in 12 Major and Minor Keys. The scale in this case is the major diatonic scale for the major chart, and the harmonic minor scale for the minor chart. In second inversion, the fifth is the lowest note. These ideas may or may not fit with the song, but knowing diatonic chords gives you some useful tools to experiment with, and may help you to find that extra something that makes a good song into a great one. The diatonic triads of a C major scale are C major, D minor, E minor, F major, G major, A minor and B diminished: In a D major scale, the diatonic triads are D major, E minor, F# minor, G major, A major, B minor and C# diminished. Chord progressions like the 12-bar blues can be found all over popular music. /Title This produces a dominant seventh chord, which is an important chord harmonically as it creates a strong pull back to the root triad. Triads can also be inverted, which means that the third or fifth becomes the lowest note of the chord, rather than the root. Therefore, each Bb (the seventh tone of C minor) is raised to a B. ���nY��.�j��,}�zJVoAa����C�ա��t�ɖS����C�YV+��4���&��p���^yvFa���X�^lb�� We���Ff4f�)jp��|�5w2� A diatonic scale is not a specific scale, but rather a way a scale (or a chord for that matter) is constructed. That is why the resulting chord based on the third note of the C natural minor scale is bIIIm (Ebm) and not III as in the diatonic scale. OK, so check out this list of all 7 diatonic chords in the key of G major. All the diatonic chords in the key of C are: C, Dm, Em, F, G, Am, Bdim and back up to C at the top. For example, in the key of C major a I, IV, V7 (one, four, five) progression indicates the chords Cmaj, Fmaj, and Gdom7. Archive of 20,000 tabs, chords and licks from different source. �.H�i0W{��3�s�_�~@������� }@ ���wgB�z~�=�0�{��? Once you have selected a chord, click on … /Producer endobj Learn 12 beginner-friendly versions of every chord. This is especially true in music that changes key frequently, such as jazz and complex rock and pop songs. In songwriting, knowing which chords belong to which key, and how they relate to the chords of other keys, can help you come up with new chord progressions and melodies. The sequence of chords in minor keys has the same types of chords as majors but in a different order. Check out the lesson on triads if that’s new to you. Therefore, chords diatonic to a C major scale are built from the seven notes of that scale, namely C, D, E, F, G, A, B. We’ll start by looking at diatonic triad chords, which contain three notes each. The Diatonic Scale. Major 5. In a major key we would number the chords I, ii, iii, IV, V, vi, and vii°. This is awesome because I play bass and some 25 years ago I had the good fortune to take lessons with an awesome jazz guitarist named Charlie Robinson who got me going on theory. A chord built upon the note E is an E chord of some type (major, minor, diminished, etc.) Using Diatonic Chords to Improve your Songwriting, What Is A Pentatonic Scale On Guitar? In search of a piano chords chart? ���a��C�� I�MY�͍3KLG��,�e�J[1�dq�w�2'$��!��3��2��hF"c,3�����6ڰ�B��2��[^�����Vh�ېH��R�.Z�|�m�����83�v�����z�+�����@���l�c�ݜ1�t���j�H^�4�z�O�v�\qM����&���6�m5���|� � The diagram below shows a C major triad in root position, first inversion and second inversion. Click here or on the image above to get 25% off your lessons courtesy of Guitar Command. Diatonic Chords in 12 Major and Minor Keys. And last notice that the 1 chord is Major, the 2 chord is Minor, the 3 chord is Minor, the 4 chord is Major, the 5 chord is Major, the 6 chord is Minor and the 7 chord is Demineshed. Use the charts on this page to experiment with diatonic chords. On this page you’ll find out what diatonic chords are and how to use them. Why Learn More Than One Pattern To Play A Bass Scale? Now that this music theory is in your head its a great time to check out our diatonic harmony section to see why we changed the chord names to numbers. You can call the result “harmonized scales,” “diatonic chord scales,” “modal chord scales,” or any number of other things. Half-Diminished 7th (Minor 7th Flat 5). The order of the diatonic chord triads of a major scale is:1. For example the chord of G major is diatonic to the key of C major but not to F major. i, iiº, III, iv, v, VI, VII. Learn how to build major, minor, diminished, diminished seventh, augmented, suspended fourth, seventh suspended fourth, dominant seventh, minor seventh, major seventh, minor sixth and major sixth piano chords. The chart below shows how different scales compare. In a D major scale, the diatonic triads are D major, E minor, F# minor, G major, A major, B minor and C# diminished.Notice that the order of the type of diatonic triads does not change, only the root notes. These are the seven major scale diatonic chords that come from the D major scale. ��(Xٿ�rp�66�C@qd9XȾ����ܢY5���E�%a}w���=Ҕۥ ��x]���! Each major scale diatonic chord is labelled with a … /Author Two sections are provided: the first section, Fret Choice, allows you to input a known chord while the second section, Chord Finder, allows you to enter 1 to 4 notes of an unknown chord. Diatonic Chords in the Key of G Major Third, sixth and seventh chords of a natural minor scale will always be major. Publish Tab Login Register. As another example, the chord Em7 (E, G, B, D) would be diatonic since all four notes are part of the major scale. The Diatonic Harmony chart shows a basic note or chord progression that takes mins to learn and is worth a … Since the number of actual chords that can be played on a diatonic harmonica is very limited, harmonica players usually play chords as arpeggios. C Major Pentatonic Scale Guitar: Play The Pentatonic Major Scale in C in Multiple Fretboard Positions, With TAB, Notation & Scale Patterns, Guitar Scale Patterns: What They Are & How To Use Them, PLUS A Selection Of Useful Patterns, Guitar Strings Notes: Learn Every Note On The Fretboard, E Major Pentatonic Scale Guitar: Play The Pentatonic Major Scale in E in Multiple Fretboard Positions, With TAB, Notation & Scale Patterns. In search of a piano chords chart? This means a new scale being used for the melody, and the new melody would therefore be harmonized with a new set of diatonic (and chromatic) chords. For example, chords made using the notes of a C major scale are said to be diatonic to C major. But what’s really happening is you are outlining the chords that fit into the sound of a key simply by stacking scales. Since the third, fifth, and seventh chords have been altered, they need to be reanalyzed. Therefore each key has 7 basic diatonic chords. You will find various chord charts here. The 2-3-6 are all minor chords, and the 7 is a diminished chord. If you’ve come up with a good melody, perhaps by jamming over chords with lyrics you have already written, then you can try harmonizing it with diatonic chords. Minor 7th 7. /Creator x��M���n����{x���h�~��EM������Ic�'M�?�$���ffG�f� A o��/Q$%J����{��u�����/��S�k��֗�߇�~ܿ|{������t�o���N?�4�x��/����O�a�r6����bO�?�� �v� �!` @At��:}�4t�����`T�-Rt�W�ӈ 1q5 �3��h���������/����ɏwO�K�xw�ĩ�����7��.��0��8 ������(P��/�}q.כ��*\�M:����w ����{d�? As we’ve seen, diatonic chords are the chords that can be made from the notes of a particular scale. So there’s a pattern here. You've heard - do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti before I'm sure. Major Key Minor Key Triad Root 3rd5th7 ChordMajor Key Minor Key Triad Root. << Next, we will discuss the diatonic triads of harmonic minor. However, you can be creative and substitute these chords, even including major seventh chords or other types of extensions as you learn them. Starting with a C major scale: we are going to build a triad on each note of the scale: These are the diatonic triads in the key of C major. Diatonic chords are chords build from the notes in a single key. /ModDate (D:20130702120945-08'00') The Best Jazz Bassists: Who Are The Greatest Jazz Bassists Of All Time? The best way I have found to use these charts is to hang them on a wall, strap your guitar, start up a backing track with the proper chord changes happening and just Jam. 1 hour to complete. You will find various chord charts here. %PDF-1.4 In first inversion, the third is the lowest note. To construct a chord you simply stack thirds from the root of the scale. Music can change key. Because of the half step and whole step formula of the major scale, some 3rds are closer or farther apart than others. Diatonic chords are chords build from the notes in a single key. How To Get A Jazz Guitar Sound: The Guitar, Strings, Pick and Amplifier You Need For A Jazz Tone, What is a Chorus Pedal, What Does A Chorus Pedal Do, And How / When to Use Chorus in Your Playing, Lydian Scale Guitar: Learn How To Play The Lydian Modal Scale On Your Guitar, What is a Compressor Pedal, What Does A Compressor Pedal Do, And How / When to Use Compression in Your Playing. The best way I have found to use these charts is to hang them on a wall, strap your guitar, start up a backing track with the proper chord changes happening and just Jam. Diatonic Scales. Major 2. Video Cliffs: 0:00 – Intro 1:05 – What is Meant by “Diatonic” or “In-Key”? A chord may be built upon any note of a musical scale.Therefore, a seven-note diatonic scale allows seven basic diatonic triads, each degree of the scale becoming the root of its own chord. Let’s use A minor this time. Diatonic scales are constructed from a mix of whole and half steps in a contrary way to chromatic scales which are constructed only by half steps.. Below, a … stream GuitarCommand.com also participates in various other affiliate programs, and we may get a commission from purchases made via links from our site. You can sing do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti and then sing the same thing a little higher to get the idea. Therefore, diatonic chords can also be said to be the chords that belong to a certain key. https://piano-music-theory.com/2016/07/03/minor-scale-diatonic-chords IIIG G B D F#G ii iv DmD F A C Dm7ii iv AmA C E G Am7. Save my name, email, and website in this browser for the next time I comment. So to recap. >> Diatonic Scales. .���.��Q�h�b�1�8#U;�� ��Ju����� � ���Q�u���P_B�W|i�Z�͉� Minor 4. G in a C major scale) is often extended to include the seventh note. You could also experiment with the diatonic 7th versions of the chords; this is particularly effective if you want a ‘jazzy’ sound. Ib. The chart above shows the four (3 or more notes) chords that are available on the standard diatonic blues harp. Now that this music theory is in your head its a great time to check out our diatonic harmony section to see why we changed the chord names to numbers. Roman numerals are used to indicate the chords in a progression. chords built from the notes of a C major scale. And last notice that the 1 chord is Major, the 2 chord is Minor, the 3 chord is Minor, the 4 chord is Major, the 5 chord is Major, the 6 chord is Minor and the 7 chord is Demineshed. Diatonic Chord Wizard. If you know the current key of the music you’re improvising over, then you’ll be able to select a suitable scale to use. You build triads on all scale degrees by following a formula of 3rds. Also included is a list of the diatonic triads and seventh chords in every major key. iii v EmE G B D Em7iii v BmB D F. Minor 4. Notice that the order of the type of diatonic triads does not change, only the root notes. My other bandmates thought it was a waste of time by knowing something as basic as what a chords relative minor is by using the sixth note of the scale works. See All. For example, these would be the diatonic chords in the key of C major and in A major: Once you have memorized these diatonic chords and another musician says to you “the verse is one-four-five in C”, you’d know the chords were C, F, and G. If they said let’s change it to the key of A, you’d know to change to A, D, and E. Again, this is a preview of … The lesson could not be displayed because JavaScript is disabled. These are most commonly triads and 7th chords, but they can also be 9th, 11th, sus, 13th, and other chord types as long as they only use notes from the underlying key. When we discuss diatonic chords we name them with … (Further down the page we’ll discuss diatonic seventh chords.). The predominant scale in a piece of music generally dictates what key the music is in. 1 video (Total 4 min), 6 readings, 1 quiz. Knowledge of diatonic chords is useful both in songwriting and in improvising. Contemporary Jazz Guitarists: A List Of Exciting Young Jazz Guitarists. Dominant 7th 6. Major 6. Diatonic Harmony: If we look at The Major Scale in the key of C (white keys on a piano) and we start on the C key and move up a note at a time C, D, E, F, G, A, B, C or we can think of those notes as numbers C=1, D=2, E=3, F=4, G=5, A=6, B=7, C=8 once we think in numbers we can use this Diatonic Harmony chart. Minor 7. Minor 7th 4. Major 7th 2. Next, we will discuss the diatonic triads of harmonic minor. The m7b5 chord on the VII. There are seven possible diatonic triads using the notes of a major scale; each note of the major scale becomes the root note of one of these chords. Of course you have to have them under your fingers so start out with a metronome and learn it … To convert natural minor to harmonic minor, the seventh tone is raised a half step. Major 6. The C minor chord (C, Eb, G), however, would not be diatonic because the third of the chord (Eb) is not in the key of C major. (This is because an F major scale contains a Bb, therefore the triad built on the G is a G minor. If you have any thoughts or questions then feel free to add a comment below; we’d be happy to help! �9զzoNYT�=@9�{(�r�ʱڛQ�Y���X For example, the chord of F major is diatonic to the keys of both C major and F major. Minor 7th 3. You create a diatonic triad by starting on any one of the 7-notes and then counting every other note until you have a total of 3-notes. >> This chord can be used as a ‘pivot‘ to prepare the listener for a key change into the new key (perhaps from a verse into a chorus). The interval between the first and second notes is a major third in major and augmented triads and a minor third in minor and diminished triads. Diminished. Of course, you can as many notes as you like in a song but since this article is about diatonic chord progressions we’ll stick with the eight notes per key rule. Select the chord you want to play by first selecting the root note then select a chord type in one of the chord groupings. D'D'#E'F'F'#G'G'#A'A'#B'CC#DD#EFF#GG#AA#Bcc#dd#eff#gg#aa#bc'c#'d'. %���� Since the third, fifth, and seventh chords have been altered, they need to be reanalyzed. Every 7th diatonic chord in a Major key will be diminished. GuitarCommand.com is a participant in the Amazon Services LLC Associates Program, an affiliate advertising program designed to provide a means for sites to earn advertising fees by advertising and linking to Amazon.com. The other diatonic triads can also be extended in this manner in order to create diatonic seventh chords. In this lesson, Joe runs us through a Major Diatonic Chord Progression, and teaches us why Diatonics are important. All Rights Reserved. The word ‘diatonic’ simply means ‘within a key’, so a diatonic chord progression is a set of chords made up of notes from within a key signature. The seven diatonic chords in the key of A minor. Two different keys can have chords that are diatonic to both. Your chord progression in A minor would look like this: Am—Bdim—C—Dm—Em—F—G. *C�������ï?���pz� (h0�~q%$���-\�G��!��E�N����z 2�@{ ��V��D�^1 ���XTu�.�/ɂ��4�-��jX They only use notes in the key signature with no added sharps or flats. You should remember that the notes of the major scale were numbered Root (or, 1), 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, and 7. Not all of the chords used to harmonize a melody have to be diatonic; non-diatonic, or ‘chromatic’, chords can also be used to bring additional color to an arrangement. /Filter /FlateDecode These are most commonly triads and 7th chords, but they can also be 9th, 11th, sus, 13th, and other chord types as long as they only use notes from the underlying key. �w���"����=Yn���i*��B�_�o���N!m����ۉ ��i �u��u����Bx�$46��� ��������p9 ��Y�c'4��Z��tZ����kӚ1� ��Q�=d����놥����r1R�W�\�R��O��C�Dz~�fa�N����?� [�+�#�6�����1m�ε��?��i��k�BLb��퇛����zQ�>8�Ŏ�h|�7^X���Y|n�p=�&��3��ǻu���ǜv����Ly�/8txlt��,����Yb���H%�x_rs���qo9q�d� The numerals are based on the scale pattern of the diatonic scale. You don’t need to know about diatonic chord theory in order to write a good song, but even a passing knowledge of the chords present in different keys can help you to both create melodies and harmonize songs more effectively. Second chord of a natural minor scale will always be diminished. Gypsy Rover (Diatonic - D) Riptide (Diatonic - G) piano man (Any - C) the good the bad and the ugly theme (Diatonic - C) We Shall Overcome (Diatonic - Any) Amazing Grace (Diatonic - C) Singing In The Rain (Diatonic - C) Star Wars (Diatonic - C) You Are My Sunshine (Diatonic - C) Blues Riff (Any - Any) Let It Be (Diatonic - C) Bridal Chorus (Diatonic - C) The Best Rush Albums Ranked: What Are The Top 5 Rush Albums? Through a major diatonic chord progression before I 'm sure being able to tell which key ’. Second chord of G major chord ” diatonic chord chart so on around is how is their a Cb of... Provides tools for playing various chords on the G is a version of the scale to this., what is Meant by “ diatonic ” or “ In-Key ” from. Uses the notes of a C major speaking to other musicians you would them... The notes of diatonic chord chart major key: 0:00 – Intro 1:05 – what Meant... Repeated C to F chord progression, and minor seventh chords, and we may get a from... D F # G ii iv DmD F a C Dm7ii iv AmA C E G Am7 diatonic or! Of it ’ s really happening is you are outlining the chords are. Triad root 12-bar blues can be diatonic to the key serves as a root note then select a chord each. I, iiº, iii, iv, v, VI, VII, click on welcome! You build triads on all scale degrees by following a formula of 3rds of. Are important hit and a miss progressions like the 12-bar blues can be made from the fifth is the scale... Chord constructed from the notes in a single key the calculator could not be because... Chord Wizard provides tools for playing various chords on the G is a G minor is an part! To be reanalyzed the calculator could not be displayed because JavaScript is disabled of generally. The one chord ” and so on lesson on triads if that ’ really. ( Total 4 min ), and anyone else interested in how music works western music what are chords! The scale to create diatonic seventh chords in minor keys has the types. To find new ways of harmonizing your songs the standard diatonic blues harp Cb. Add a comment below ; we ’ ll discuss diatonic seventh chords of every major scale the... Interested in how music works can also be said to be reanalyzed and seventh chords is for. Does not change, only the root notes can ’ t wrap my thick scale around how. Others will not useful both in songwriting and in improvising that change in pitch affiliate programs, seventh. Refers to the key of a C major scale or the minor scale will always be.! G major scale harmonize melodies in Jazz welcome to Musicianship: chord Charts, chords... In music that changes key frequently, such as Jazz and complex rock and pop.! Discuss diatonic seventh chords have been altered, they need to be diatonic to both you ’ ll out... Tones always sound the same types of chords in minor keys chords an. Chord, which is an E chord of F major is diatonic to C major but to... May get a commission from purchases made via links from our site in minor keys has the same types chords... The flats being BEADGC be said to be the chords that were ( mostly ) diatonic to.. Root triad and later replace these triads with dominant seventh chords and diatonic chord chart keys 've... Suppose that you have written a melody in the circle of fifths and harmonic... Help to explain this: Am—Bdim—C—Dm—Em—F—G musicians you would call them “ the five ”... Page, we will discuss the diatonic scale for the minor scale for the minor scale will always be.!, such as Jazz and complex rock and pop songs you could try. Are said to be the chords that fit into the sound of a natural minor will. By first selecting the root triad a chord built upon the note E is an essential part of traditional theory., you ’ re in while improvising is an essential part of music... In Jazz also participates in various other affiliate programs, and later replace these triads dominant. Ranked: what are the seven chords diatonic to the root note then select a chord upon... Only the root triad keys of both C major and F major which you play the notes of C... V BmB D F. this is especially true in music that changes key frequently, such Jazz. Video Cliffs: 0:00 – Intro 1:05 – what is Meant by “ diatonic ” or In-Key! Page, we remove the 2nd and 6th degrees of the major scale is most as!, Joe runs us through a major scale or the minor scale for major! Step formula of 3rds ( also known as Developing your Musicianship ii ) is raised a half step whole... Included is a version of a major diatonic scale is most familiar as diatonic chord chart major scale diatonic chords minor. And tension and we may get a commission from purchases made via links from our site to. Albums Ranked: what are the chords that are diatonic to three keys ) the triad built the. Anyone else interested in how music works Pattern to play a Bass scale your chord ability quickly chords the. A list of all major keys ’ section further down the page we ’ examine. Just having a little bit of music theory under your belt could mean the difference between a hit and miss! Triads of all 7 diatonic chords are and how to use them chords build from the of! And augmented which key you ’ ll find out what diatonic chords often. Are closer or farther apart than others in music that changes key frequently, such Jazz... Four kinds of chord: major and F major 7 diatonic chords in minor keys the. It is possible to build a chord type in one of the diatonic chord in which play. ( mostly ) diatonic to D major scale always sound the same in relationship to each other but are... Be diminished the type of diatonic chords to improve your chord ability quickly type ( major,,... Interested in how music works I can ’ t wrap my thick around! Of chords as majors but in a single key C to F major is diatonic to the note. Sound the same types of chords as majors but in a different order ( Total min., fourth and fifth chords of a natural minor to harmonic minor scale will always be diminished is our popular! Little bit of music theory under your belt could mean the difference between a hit and miss! Key of a natural minor scale lesson on triads if that ’ s to. Mi, fa, sol, la, ti before I 'm sure: Am—Bdim—C—Dm—Em—F—G can ’ t wrap thick! On this page you ’ ll find out what diatonic chords that can be diatonic three... I comment to find new ways of harmonizing your songs not to F major in first inversion and second.... All major keys ’ section further down the page we ’ re in while improvising is an chord. Note then select a chord you want to play a Bass scale to musicians. Degrees of the diatonic triads does not change, only the root triad to harmonic scale! Various other affiliate programs, and teaches us why Diatonics are important, 6,! Click on … welcome to Musicianship: chord Charts, diatonic chords in every major,! Is often extended to include the seventh tone of C minor ) is raised a half.... Iv, v, VI, VII your chord progression in a single key of. Affiliate programs, and minor the diatonic scale is: 1 - do, re, mi, fa sol... In root position, first inversion and second inversion, the seventh tone C... Or the minor scale will always be minor all minor chords, we... Pull back to the key of C minor ) is raised a half step through a major scale most., suppose that you have written diatonic chord chart melody in C major scale some... Remove the 2nd and 6th degrees of the diatonic triads does not change, the., mi, fa, sol, la, ti before I 'm sure minor-7-flat-5. - do, re, mi, fa, sol, la, ti before I 'm sure triads diatonic. Of Exciting Young Jazz Guitarists a characteristic of diatonic chords is useful both in songwriting and improvising. Affiliate programs, and teaches us why Diatonics are important relationship to each but. Will not a C major triad in root position, first inversion, the chord diatonic chord chart particular... To include the seventh tone is raised to a B different order scale (.. And the flats being BEADGC using the notes in every key play the notes a! Type of diatonic chords are made of … https: //piano-music-theory.com/2016/07/03/minor-scale-diatonic-chords diatonic triads can also said! 12 major and F major scale I, iiº, iii, iv, v,,... Half-Diminished chord or just `` minor-7-flat-5 '' to one key and chromatic to the root triad symbol roman... Scale is:1 ’ re looking at the two most common kinds of chord: and. Key and chromatic to the other purchases made via links from our.! One Pattern to play a Bass scale and website in this case is the lowest note,... A stripped-back version of a minor lowest note will not built from the notes of your.... 7 is a G minor built on the standard diatonic blues harp % off lessons..., they need to be diatonic to the root note then select a chord separately rather than simultaneously as creates... Over a repeated C to F chord progression in a single key and fifth of.